Evidence of Primary Water

Scientific research studies suggest:
Non-conventional water resources do exist

Why the Primary Water Theory is more than a theory

Both recent scientific research studies and many existing primary water wells in the world suggest that the current scientific consensus is wrong. Primary water does exist, and it can be accessed for solving of one of the biggest problems of humankind – the increasing scarcity of water.

There are two hypotheses argued by mainstream geologists and hydrologists:
1. All water resources are part of the atmospheric water cycle. There is no water deep in the earth.
2. When celestial bodies were formed, there was no water involved. Water was brought to Planet Earth later through comets and asteroids.

Most recent contributions from various scientific disciplines have disproved these hypotheses:


Blue Ringwoodite (Photomicrograph taken at University of Hawaii, of a crystal I grew in Bayreuth, Germany. Author: Jasperox; licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license)
Geology, petrology and geochemistry:

  • The superdeep boreholes in Germany (German Continental Deep Drilling Programme 1989; 9 km depth) and Northern Russia (Kola Superdeep Borehole1985; 12 km depth) revealed that there are unexpectedly large volumes of water in fractured rocks in more than 7 km depth.
  • Black smokers under the Atlantic Ocean: Vents of supercritical water first discovered in nature (2006)
  • Computer simulation of reactions in Earth’s upper mantle between liquid hydrogen and quartz (2017): Scientists from Japan and Canada have found evidence of several oceans’ worth of water locked up in rock, questioning the assumption that water arrived from space after Earth’s formation.
  • Ringwoodite minerals first found on Earth: This polymorphous mineral is formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth’s mantle between 525 and 660 km (326 and 410 mi) depth. This suggests that there is from one to three times the world ocean’s equivalent of water in the mantle transition zone.
  • Eruptions of volcanoes on Earth: Water vapor is the most common constituent in all samples of volcanic gases (i.e., Mount St. Helens 91%, Merapi 88%, Surtsey 81%). Therefore, magma must contain large quantities of water.
Enceladus (Image: Courtesy NASA JPL/Caltech)
Astronomy and planetary research:

  • NASA’s Voyager and Cassini missions revealed that some of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s moons contain plenty of water and sub-surface oceans, including Enceladus, Titan, Mimas, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede. The image shows water-rich plumes venting from the south polar region of Enceladus, caused by cryovolcanism.
  • Planet Mars and the Earth’s Moon also have water.
  • Evidence of plenty of water in deep space: Water, mostly in form of ice, is ubiquitous.
  • Around a black hole 12 billion light years away alone, the water vapor cloud is enough to supply 28 galaxies with water. According to NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, it is another demonstration that water is pervasive throughout the universe, even at the very earliest times.

Where do these waters come from?

Oases in deserts

Where does the water come from when there is no rain that could replenish depleting groundwater tables?

Springs on high mountains

Where does the water come from when gravity only allows it to flow downward?

Hot springs

Water must originate from deep sources where the temperature is much higher: Is there any other explanation?

Water in mining shafts

How can water intrusions climb to elevations far above the water table even in zones of no known aquifer with little precipitation?

Some examples of primary water wells

Mines in Finland and Sweden close to the coast line without salinity. These primary water sources were first described by Finnish scientist Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld in 1885. He was finding water by drilling into promontories and rocky islands off the Swedish coast. His paper “About Drilling for Water in Primary Rocks” earned him a nomination for the first Nobel prize in physics.

Escondido, California: Stephan Riess and his successor, Morad Eghbal, each located several wells in the late 1970’s on private property both for the personal use of the owner as well as for the commercial water development for surrounding towns that needed to purchase water. These wells are in operation and producing today.

Cottonwood, Idaho:
Stephan Riess located three wells for the city of Cottonwood which were producing  250, 500 and 550 gallons per minute, respectively. All three wells continue to supply the city of Cottonwood today. Although they are located close to each other, each well’s water has a distinct chemistry suggesting that they are supplied by different deep fractured rock systems.

Water intrusions in mining shafts: Eureka Mine, Nevada, with 40 million liters per day, and Tombstone Mine, Arizona.

California City in the Mojave desert could only be developed after Stephan Riess has located and drilled a primary water well on the top of a granite hill which is now in the center of the city. It yields large amounts of water, uninterrupted since the Fifties of the last century.

Mt. Whitney, California: Continuous water flow from a spring at an altitude of 13,000 ft. Mt. Whitney (14,505 feet; 4,421 m) is the tallest mountain in California, as well as the highest summit in the contiguous United States and the Sierra Nevada.

(Image by Zeimusu; Wikimedia Commons, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 1.0 Generic license)

Coast of Maine:  Big old quarry on a hilltop in Tenants Harbor overflowing all year long with crystal clear fresh water. Well drillers from Maine indicate that fresh water can be had anywhere along the Maine shoreline by simply drilling down to fissures in the granite.

New York City: In 1956, a new water source was discovered in 3 meters depth with a yield of 12 million liters per day. Temperature and cleanliness suggested that this water source was not connected to any surrounding water body.

Reams of caverns in the granite of Brittany that are commonly used to feed humans and cattle. These wells very rarely dry up, even in drought periods. The knowledge about this abundant water source is widespread among local farmers; they label it “L’eau des roches” (water of the rocks).


Jericho:  Ein-es-Sultan, the Sultan’s Spring, commonly called the Fountain of Elisha, or the Prophet’s Fountain, is active since ancient times. It is close to the first permanent settlement of humans built between 8000 and 7000 BC.

Eilat: In 1958, Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion asked Stephan Riess to find primary water to supply a new city, and port on the Red Sea, under construction. In May 29, 1959, the Jerusalem Post announced that the Riess-located wells were sufficient to supply a city of more than 100,000 people, enough to supply the city of Eilat, and outlying villages.

The Ain Figeh Well in Damascus has an average yield of 132,000 gpm (8,630 L/sec) since Roman times. It supplies water for the over one million residents of Damascus and is also the principal source for the Barada River.

According to a report published by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, “the main source is similar to a sub-surface river of a breadth of several meters which exits to the upside of a calcareous formation of the hill”.

Citadelle Laferrière, a mountaintop fortress located on a high mountain range in Haiti. The water of its well was described as clear and cold and being fed by an inexhaustible source.

Image: U.S. Air Force (public domain)

The organization Global Resource Alliance, working with the hungarian ‘water wizard’ Pal Pauer, has drilled over 80 boreholes to primary water at various depths, in Tanzania, installing handpumps that enable villagers to have easy access to clean water that is free of disease causing microbes, parasites, and surface contaminants.
In Bosnia-Herzegovina, there are many wells from ancient times that are producing constant temperature water year round, independent from varied precipitation. Famous wells are located at Bobovac and Ljubuski, where the latter one is reported to have strong swirls at its bottom which speaks against being just a cistern. Other arguments against cisterns, reservoirs or containers are that they have not been built waterproof, and the mainly vertical excavation. Less known wells are located at Fojnica, Travnik and Visoko (on the top of the controversial, pyramid shaped hill – the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun). (Text passages are from the article Ancient Water Supply Systems by Mladen Milidragovic)